2012中考英语短文综合填空命题特点及解题技巧(精品)

2012中考英语短文综合填空命题特点及解题技巧(精品)
    短文综合填空实际上是完形填空的一种形式,即,给出首字母的填词型完形填空,一般在短文中留空10个。近几年,有的地方中考把短文综合填空单独列为一个大题,它要求学生根据上下文线索,从语篇层次上把握语言材料,在阅读理解的基础上进行逻辑推理,综合运用所学知识,准确无误地填上意义上和语法上都正确的单词。短文综合填空主要考查学生以下三个方面的知识和技能:1、对文章的整体理解、上下文段落的衔接、逻辑思维和判断能力;2、对词汇意义、惯用法、常见搭配、各种语法规则、句型、句式等的理解与运用能力;3、对生活中常见的事实进行推理和判断的能力。
    一、命题特点
1、所选文章题材广泛,体裁多样,文章内容新颖、有趣、可读性强。与《英语课程标准》所倡导的五级英语阅读水平相当。
2、文章长短适当,内容紧凑。文章内一般设空10个,且给首字母提示。文章的首尾两句一般不设空,从而保证给学生提供足够的信息量。
3、文章中空格的设定以考查语言意义为主,对实词(名词、动词、形容词、副词、代词等)的考查占较大的比重。
4、空格的设计着重考查在一定语境中的词语运用、习惯搭配和推理判断。
二、解题技巧
1、速读。通读文章,跳过空格了解信息,初步掌握文章大意。
①抓住首尾句。捕捉文章的首句可以对整个语篇的方向有初步的了解,有助于接下来的理解与推理,而尾句往往是文章的结论、总结和升华,会给我们带来很多的启示。
②抓住文章的主线和关键词。速读时往往会遇到部分生词,可采取跳读或猜词的方式,了解文章的梗概、把握文章的中心。如果一开始就忙于见一空填一词,则无法从语篇上进行整体把握,容易造成顾此失彼,影响做题的速度和准确率。
2、精读。仔细阅读文章,抓住短文每段、每句作者所要表达的思想。短文综合填空题一般也分为:
①知识型。主要考查词汇、习惯搭配在语篇中的运用。
②推理型。主要考查对语篇的整体把握和理解。对连词的考查涉及到学生对行文逻辑的掌握和句子之间关联的理解。
③综合型。即对学生综合运用能力的考查,如生活经验常识等。
3、复读。再次阅读短文,检查答案,看其是否符合文章的逻辑推理。短文综合填空属于障碍性阅读,或恢复原貌式的阅读理解,学生可凭借语感通读文章,检查前后是否连贯。
三、示例解析
A
If you don’t use your arms or your legs for some time, they will become week; when you start using them again, they will gradually(逐渐的) become s   1   again. Everybody knows this. Yet many people do not seem to know that it is the s   2   with memory. When someone says that he has a good memory, he really means that he doesn’t give it enough chance to become stronger.
If a friend says that his arms and legs are weak, we k  3   that it is his own fault. But if he tells us that he has p poor memory, many of us think that his   4   are to blame, and f   5   of us know that it is just his own fault.
Have you e   6   found some people can’t read or write but they usually have b   7   memories! This is b   8   they can not read or write and they h   9   to remember things; they can not write them down in a little notebook. They must remember dates, names, songs and stories; so their memory is the whole time being exercised.
So if you want a good memory, I   10   from these people; practice remembering.
[答案解析]:
1.填stronger。该句采用对比说明人的胳膊和腿不用就会变得虚弱,再用起来,就会变得更强壮。
2.填some。根据上文和首字母s的提示可知:许多人似乎不知道人的记忆力与前面说的人的胳膊和腿的情况是同样的道理。
3.填know。此句说明一个常理,我们知道人的胳膊和腿不用就弱,这是自己的错。
4.填parents。联系上文可知,我们许多人认为记忆不好,责任在于父母。
5.填few。该句说明,记忆不好也是自己的错,这一道理却很少有人知道。
6.填ever。根据道字母e的提示及该句的时态和意思判断就填ever。
7.填better。此句举例说,有些人虽然不会读书写字,但他们却有较好的记忆力。
8.填because。用This is because…句型说明不会读书写字的人而记忆力较好原因。
9.填have。此句用have to 结构说明不会读书写字的人,他们不得不强记东西。
10.填learn。此句是作者写这篇文章的目的,如果你想有好的记忆,就向这些人学习,练习记忆。
B
Many people in Beijing have returned to school only because they have become parents.
Parents are searching for help to solve a problem: the education of their “only c  1   .” “One student complained his father, who liked smoking, always left the s   2   of smoke in the room and he could not do his homework there. Another wrote that his father often played mah – jong and the n   3   kept him awake most of the night. Many people know I   4   about home education and keep making mistakes. Parents’ school are badly n  5   .” an official said.
The parents’ school provide many talks on h   6   to be good parents.
Xu Lin’s son was a middle school student. He f   7   all of his first term exams. Xu Lin got a   8   and beat him. But his son’s marks didn’t improve. Xu Lin then went to a parents’ school and learned a lot. The boy did well in all his subjects in the next term and helped teach his mother English.
Parents need not only to give instructions, but to be t   9   , even by their children. A parent said, “A   10   the classes, I know more about my child and she also understands me better.”
[答案解析]:
1. 填child。联系下文可知:父母再次入学是为了寻找帮助解决他们的独生子的教育问题。
2. 填smell。Smell在此用作名词,吸烟后,房间里留下烟味。
3. 填noise。父亲打麻将的声音使他长时间夜晚不能入睡。
4. 填little。由前两句可知:许多父母对家庭教育知之甚少。
5. 填needed。从此段可知,许多父母对家庭教育不够重视,因此非常需要家长学校。
6. 填how。据首字母提示及句意可知,家长学校提供了很多怎样做好家长的讲座。
7. 填failed。由后面的beat him可判断出,许林的儿子在第一学期所有的考试都没有及格。
8. 填angry。考试没及格,父亲当然很生气了。
9. 填taught。联系上下文可知,家长也需要被教育。
10. 填After。此句表示上过这些课文后,他\她知道了许多关于孩子的情况。
C
How to Look after a Computer
Many young people use computers, but few of them know how to look after them. Remember the following when you use your computer.
Keep your computer in a cool, dry r   1   . Too much or too little heat is bad for computers. Moisture(潮湿) is also bad for them. Most computers work b   2   at a temperature of 50C—300C.
Don’t let people s   3   cigarettes(香烟) near your computer. Smoke of all kinds is very bad for many parts of a computer and cause many p  4   .
Don’t eat or d   5   when you are near your computer. Pieces of food and a little water in the k  6   can also cause many problems.
Make sure that the keyboard and screen are the correct h  7   for you. If they are not correct, you will get a backache.
Make sure the screen is the correct distance from your e   8   . If you wear glasses, make sure these glasses are correct for using with the computer. Some people use a different pair of glasses when they use a computer.
Keep your screen c   9   and don’t have it bright. A dirty screen can h   10   your eyes. A very bright screen can also be bad for your eyes.
[答案解析]:
1. 填room。电脑应放在凉快,干燥的房间里。
2. 填best。联系上句可知,多数电脑最佳工作状态是50C—300C的温度下。
3. 填smoke。根据首字母和句意可知,不要让人在你的电脑旁抽烟。
4. 填problems。联系上句可知,各种烟雾对电脑的许多零部件有害,并且能引起许多问题。
5. 填drink。根据首字母和句意可知,当你在你的电脑旁边的时候,不要吃东西,也不要喝东西。
6. 填keyboord。键盘上的零星食物和点滴水渍会引发许多问题。
7. 填height。确保键盘和屏幕的高度对你要适合。
8. 填eyes。确保屏幕与你眼睛的距离要适合。
9. 填clean。此句表示要保持屏幕清洁干净。
10. 填burt 或harm。联系前句和后句可知,不干净的屏幕会损害眼睛。
学优中考网                                                                  www.xyzkw.com
学优中考网                                                                  www.xyzkw.com

2012中考英语短文综合填空命题特点及解题技巧(精品) 短文综..2012中考英语短文综合填空命题特点及解题技巧(精品) 短文综合填空实际上是完形填空的一种形式,即,给出首字母的填词型完形填空,一般在短文中留空10个。近几年,有的地方中考把短文综合填空单独列为一个大题,它要求学生根据上下文线索,从语篇层次上把握语言材料,在阅读理解的基础上进行逻辑推理,综合运用所学知识,准确无误地填上意义上和语法上都正确的单词。短文综合填空主要考查学生以下三个方面的

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